This lesson practises IELTS Reading Matching Headings and Multiple Choice Questions.
- The information is NOT in the same order in the text
- Some headings are NOT used (here there are 7 paragraphs and 10 headings, so 3 will not be used).
- The answers can be found in the synonyms (see the answers in bold).
- Make sure that the heading sums up the WHOLE paragraph (not just a single mention)
- Topic sentences (the first one or two lines of the paragraph) often introduce the main theme of the whole paragraph.
- The theme of the paragraph is often reiterated (repeated) in the final line of the paragraph (see paras D and E below).
Scroll down for Multiple Choice tips.
FAQ: Should I read the text or the questions first?
This offical guide to Matching Headings (ielts.idp website) shows that both strategies work.
I personally prefer to read the questions first, as a general rule.
I believe that reading the questions first helps with time management strategies – it helps you isolate the parts of the text that you need to read.
IELTS Reading Matching Headings Practice
The Reading Passage has six paragraphs A–F.
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
i The Spy in the sky
ii The spread of technology
iii The limitations of cameras
iv The cost of cameras
v Robots solving serious crimes
vi Lack of conclusive evidence
vii Cars and cameras
viii Advantages and disadvantages
ix A natural progression (Example given – Para A)
x A feeling of safety
High-tech crime-fighting tools
Example: Para A ix A natural progression
Crime-fighting technology is getting more sophisticated and rightly so. The police need to be equipped for the 21st century. In Britain we’ve already got the world’s biggest DNA database. By next year the state will have access to the genetic data of 4.25m people: one British-based person in 14. Hundreds of thousands of those on the database will never have been charged with a crime.
1) Para B
Britain is also reported to have more than 4 million CCTV (closed circuit television) cameras. There is a continuing debate about the effectiveness of CCTV. Some evidence suggests that it is helpful in reducing shoplifting and car crime. It has also been used to successfully identify terrorists and murderers. However, many claim that better lighting is just as effective to prevent crime and that cameras could displace crime. An internal police report said that only one crime was solved for every 1,000 cameras in London in 2007. In short, there is conflicting evidence about the effectiveness of cameras, so it is likely that the debate will continue.
2) Para C
Professor Mike Press, who has spent the past decade studying how design can contribute to crime reduction, said that, in order for CCTV to have any effect, it must be used in a targeted way. Most schemes that simply record city centres continually — often not being watched – do not produce results. CCTV can also have the opposite effect of that intended, by giving citizens a false sense of security and encouraging them to be careless with property and personal safety. Professor Press said: ‘All the evidence suggests that CCTV alone makes no positive impact on crime reduction and prevention at all. The weight of evidence would suggest the investment is more or less a waste of money unless you have lots of other things in place.’
3) Para D
But in reality, this is not what is happening. Instead, police are considering using more technology. Police forces have recently begun experimenting with cameras in their helmets. The footage will be stored on police computers, along with the footage from thousands of CCTV cameras and millions of pictures from number-plate recognition cameras used increasingly to check up on motorists.
4) Para E
And now another type of technology is being introduced. It’s called the Microdrone and it’s a toy-sized remote-control craft that hovers above streets or crowds to film what’s going on beneath. The Microdrone has already been used to monitor rock festivals. The drones are small enough to be unnoticed by people on the ground when they are flying at 350ft. They contain high-resolution video surveillance equipment and an infrared night vision capability, so even in darkness they give their operators a bird’s-eye view of locations while remaining virtually undetectable.
5) Para F
The worrying thing is, who will get access to this technology? Merseyside police are already employing two of the devices as part of a pilot scheme to watch football crowds and city parks looking for antisocial behaviour. It is not just about crime detection: West Midlands fire brigade is about to lease a drone, for example, to get a better view of fire and flood scenes and aid rescue attempts; the Environment Agency is considering their use for monitoring of illegal fly tipping and oil spills. The company that makes the drone says it has no plans to license the equipment to individuals or private companies, which hopefully will prevent private security firms from getting their hands on them. But what about local authorities? In theory, this technology could be used against motorists. And where will the surveillance society end? Already there are plans to introduce ‘smart water’ containing a unique DNA code identifier that when sprayed on a suspect will cling to their clothes and skin and allow officers to identify them later. As long as high-tech tools are being used in the fight against crime and terrorism, fine. But if it’s another weapon to be used to invade our privacy then we don’t want it.
1) Para B vi Lack of conclusive evidence
The references to EVIDENCE start from the first line (“is reported to”). Then it introduces the topic of how effective CCTV is. It provides “some evidence”, then a contrast word “However” followed by “many claim” – this is another suggestion that there’s no evidence to support the claim. The “police report” is a form of evidence. But ‘there is conflicting evidence’.
2) Para C iii The limitations of cameras
Most schemes “simply record” and are “not being watched”. Another limitation is that they give citizens “a false sense of security”. CCTV “alone” makes no positive impact. It’s a waste of money UNLESS you have other things – these are all LIMITATIONS.
3) Para D ii The spread of technology
The Present Continuous tense suggests changes are coming: “police are considering using MORE technology” (topic sentence – first line). Number-plate recognition cameras are used “increasingly” (= more often) (last line).
4) Para E i The Spy in the sky
First lines – the Microdrone “hovers above streets to film…“….”to monitor” rock festivals”. “flying at 350ft” “a bird’s-eye view”.
5) Para F viii Advantages and disadvantages
First line introduces a “worrying thing” (disadvantage).
“It’s not just about crime detections” (advantages) ….fire and floods, rescue attempts, fly tipping, oil spills…”
But where will it end?” (disadvantage) “another weapon to invade our privacy”.
IELTS Reading Multiple Choice tips
- most MCQ questions go in the same order as the text
- First, locate the question in the text.
- Try to understand the question and answer it without looking at the options.
- Examine the text to find the answer.
- Then look at the options.
- Cross out the 2 that are obviously wrong.
- This leaves you with 2 that look correct. One of them will be a trick/distractor.
- Learn to identify tricks
- Learn to distinguish between FACT and OPINION,
6) Britain has already got
A four million CCTV cameras.
B more data about DNA than any other country.
C the most sophisticated crime-fighting technology.
D access to the genetic data of one in fourteen people living in Britain.
Para B Britain is also reported to have more than 4 million CCTV (closed circuit television) cameras.
7) Professor Press
A works at the University of Manchester.
B studies car-related crime.
C is concerned about the negative impact of the use of CCTV.
D feels that some marketing departments lie about the crime-reducing benefits of CCTV.
Para C: CCTV can also have the opposite effect of that intended, by giving citizens a false sense of security and encouraging them to be careless with property and personal safety.
8) The Microdrone is
A a type of toy in the shape of a plane.
B being used by the Metropolitan Police.
C being used by the government.
D able to film in the dark.
Para E They contain high-resolution video surveillance equipment and an infrared night vision capability, so even in darkness they give their operators a bird’s-eye view of locations while remaining virtually undetectable.
6) Britain has already got:
A – four million CCTV cameras.
7) Professor Press
C – is concerned about the negative impact of the use of CCTV.
8) The Microdrone is
D – able to film in the dark.
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