What is formal writing?
In IELTS Writing Task 2, you have to write in a ‘formal’ ‘academic’ style, which means:
- avoiding slang and colloquial expressions
- using ‘full’ verbs such as ‘collect‘ rather than phrasal verbs such as ‘pick up‘
- avoiding contractions such as ‘I’d’ ‘We’ll’ ‘It’s’
- using Passive Tense rather than Active tense e.g. ‘It is often said’ rather than ‘people often say’
- avoiding anecdotal (story-like) evidence like ‘
My friendMany people had a similar experience’
- using objective facts like ‘Research has shown that a number of people have had a similar experience’
- stating your opinion ‘formally’ in Task 2 e.g. ‘This essay argues that…’ ‘In my opinion…’
Reading academic-style texts and model answers will help you develop a formal, academic writing style.
Formal/informal language for General Training Writing Task 1
GT Writing Task 1 is a letter or email.
Some people think this is a really easy task because it’s just 150 words, and the task often looks simple e.g. ‘Invite your friend to your house’.
But, if writing a letter is so easy for everyone, why doesn’t everyone get Band 7+?
The difference between a Band 6 and Band 7+ is in the TONE.
The TONE is the way you sound to the reader. The impression that you make on the reader. How the reader feels when they read your letter. How the reader responds to your letter. The effect that you have on the reader.
This is what makes General Training Task 1 more difficult than it looks and also what so many people get wrong.
The problem with TONE in GT Writing Task 1
Many ‘native’ speakers take the General Training Test in the UK in order to emigrate to Australia or Canada. Some of them haven’t done any preparation for the test, so they just write a letter as they would normally – that’s fine.
But some people think that, because it’s a test, they need to write everything very formally. This is so far from the truth.
Indeed, when I post model answers of informal letters, people are quite shocked at how informal they are, and they often question if this is acceptable in IELTS.
When this happens I always go back to the writing band descriptors. So let’s have a look at them now.
Band 7 – the tone is consistent and appropriate
Band 6 – there may be inconsistencies in tone
Band 7 – uses less common lexical items with some awareness of style and collocation
Band 6 – attempts to use less common vocabulary but with some inaccuracy
So we can see that apart from answering the question fully (‘covering the requirements of the task’) one major difference in scores is in the TONE and the ability to use ‘less common lexical items‘.
What this means is that you have to show the examiner that you have the ability, skill and awareness to use e.g. ‘pick up‘ rather than ‘collect‘ (and vice versa) in the appropriate places.
The 3 types of letter in GT Writing Task 1
There are basically 3 types of General Training letter:
- Formal – to someone you’ve probably never met e.g. a job application or letter of complaint.
- Semi-Formal – e.g. requesting time off from your boss or information from a public department
- Informal – to your friend who probably knows you quite well, so you can relax
You have to decide who your reader is, how well you know them and what effect you want to have on them. This will help you choose the most appropriate tone for your reader.
Compare the two examples of an informal letter to a friend below. I put together all of the inappropriate uses of formal words and expressions that I found when I was marking my students’ work.
They are excellent examples of FORMAL Writing, but the effect on a friend would be rather strange.
Then I changed them to make them more informal. What differences can you see?
How to make your letters informal
- Use ‘Hi’ and ‘Bye for now’ or ‘Lots of love’
- Ask questions: ‘How’s it going?’ ‘What have you been up to?’
- Use exclamation marks: ‘So excited!’
- Use commands: ‘Write soon!’
- Use phrasal verbs: ‘pick up’ ‘drop off’
- Use slang: ‘pop round’ ‘splash out’ ‘cash’ ‘asap’ ‘stuff’ ‘at the mo’
- Use contractions: ‘I’d’ ‘haven’t’ ‘I’ve’ ‘I’m’
- Shorten sentences ‘Hope you’re well’ ‘Got any recommendations?’
This is the only way that you can push your score up to a 7 or 8 when writing an informal letter.
Get my checklist of informal features here.
There are always ‘in between’ cases. What if you know your boss well? You can make that clear in the letter if you want, but it is a professional situation so you need to remain semi-formal.
What if you’re writing to a pen-friend who you’ve never met? Ok, remain polite but still friendly and personal.
What if you’re really angry in your letter of complaint? Always remain polite and non-threatening, but feel free to show some emotion.
In the formal letter of complaint to a bus company below, my student asked my why I had used ‘the bus did not turn up‘ instead of the formal ‘arrive‘ (great question) even though the rest of the letter is very formal.
There were 3 main reasons for my choice:
- ‘turn up’ will get me a better score for vocab because it is ‘less common’. ‘Arrive’ is a word you probably learn as a beginner.
- ‘turn up’ suggests annoyance – so it shows the examiner that I have ‘some awareness of style’.
- I am not applying for a job. I am not trying to impress the reader. I am trying to convey my unhappiness. So a certain amount of ’emotion’ is acceptable as long as I remain polite.
Also, the overall formal tone of the letter is consistently formal and polite and the purpose is clear.
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